optimality theory in phonology pdf

0000084061 00000 n Bringing together most of the best-known researchers in the field, it presents a state-of-the-art overview of research in Spanish phonology within the non-derivational framework of optimality theory. In contrast, dominance relations in markedness hierarchies are universal; e.g. -��!����Ԃ 0000001123 00000 n 0000017582 00000 n 0000107384 00000 n Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality Theory (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics). %PDF-1.2 %���� The formalism of Optimality Theory 20 Unlike earlier rule-based generative treatments of phonology, Optimality Theory … 0000105915 00000 n Earlier frameworks of generative phonology were characterized by a fairly complicated theory of derivations, involving lexical levels, the cycle, and intrinsic and extrinsic rule ordering, among other. 0000081754 00000 n 0000083322 00000 n Optimality Theory in Linguistics (KieZuraw. OT differs from other approaches to phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, which typically use rules rather than constraints. Series. 71 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 73 /H [ 1123 538 ] /L 198821 /E 109222 /N 17 /T 197283 >> endobj xref 71 36 0000000016 00000 n OT in General: Robot Ethics OT in Phonology: Final Devoicing 0000001661 00000 n approach to language. In Optimality Theory (OT) an adult phonology … Optimality theory / René Kager. 1 Optimality Theory in Linguistics Kie Zuraw Department of Linguistics University of Southern California 3601 Watt Way, GFS 301 Los Angeles, CA 90089-1693 Short title: Optimality Theory phone: 213-740-3884 fax: 213-740-9306 email: zuraw@usc.edu c. GEN: a mapping of inputs to every possible output, d. 0000018363 00000 n In linguistics, Optimality Theory is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints. This book presents the results of research as applied to syntax/language acquisition, as well as considering the main lines of attack by rule-based grammarians. Optimality Theory (OT) is a linguistic theory that provides a means of analyzing language in terms of ranked constraints instead of rule ordering. Free Download The Phonology Of English: A Prosodic Optimality-Theoretic Approach PDF Book Applied Corpus Linguistics is a new, international peer-reviewed journal for the dissemination of research that reports or … As a theory of phonological representation, autosegmental phonology developed a formal account of ideas that had been sketched in earlier work by several linguists, notably Bernard BlochCharles Hockett and J. Download PDF Books, Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, including a lengthy excerpt from Prince and Smolensky’s never-before-published Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. H�\Tx��Ͻ3�!/�,(���MBi$���Ȇ�쒄l"!�A#B��|� To appear in Michael Arbib, ed., Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, 2nd edition. John J. McCarthy (Ed. 0000108738 00000 n 0000108716 00000 n 0000108124 00000 n Optimality theory (Linguistics) I. trailer << /Size 107 /Info 70 0 R /Root 72 0 R /Prev 197273 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 72 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 68 0 R >> endobj 105 0 obj << /S 424 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 106 0 R >> stream The duplication problem is addressed by the so-called monostratal theories, like declarative phonology (Bird, Scobbie a.o. 0000017178 00000 n Ovaj članak uvod je u optimalnosnu teoriju i u načela njezine primjene u fonologiji. [P� h��X�1�,�@ f�a� ml;q�)����L~�^�����`5�5�b2�*K1c1>Zl��5�z���!��y������N������p��wڏ,���-_�,l�S2+̟8;�s ISBN 0 521 58980 0 (paperback) 1. The Prague Linguistic Circle provided the first detailed expression of the ideas behind feature theory, and relevant ideas occur in American Structuralist work. By 1993, this new approach had a name — Optimality Theory — and it became known through their widely-circulated manuscript Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar (hereafter, Prince and Smolensky (2004)). The following functions are supported: constraint ranking; constraint weighting for maxent grammars and Noisy Harmonic Grammars The impact of this work on the field of phonology was extensive and immediate; since "J RpB Compiles the most important readings about Optimality Theory in phonology from some, Constraint-based frameworks such as Optimality Theory (OT) have significantly altered phonologists' views on the nature of derivations and their role in linguistic theory. Optimality theory has revolutionized phonological theory, and its insights are now being applied to other central aspects of language. Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, including a lengthy excerpt from Prince and Smolensky’s never-before-published Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. 0000001870 00000 n Format: PDF, Docs View: 3681 Get Books Optimality theory has revolutionized phonological theory, and its insights are now being applied to other central aspects of language. stress never seeks out a central vowel when a high peripheral vowel is available. The book is structured around six major areas of, Accident Prevention Manual for Business Industry, Student Solutions Manual for Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos 2nd edition, orthographia delle voci della lingua nostra o vero dittionario volgare et latino nel quale simpara a scriuer correttamente ogni parola di m francesco sansouino, eurovisions identity and the international politics of the eurovision song contest since 1956, some adaptations of marsh nesting blackbirds. b. a phonology can contain an unbounded number of rules; c. input restrictions are treated differently. 0000106673 00000 n processes in *Generative Phonology, and (iv) in the formulation of constraints in *Optimality Theory. OT models grammars as systems that provide mappings from inputs to outputs; typically, the inputs are conceived of as underlying representations, and the outputs as their Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection ofreadings on this important new theory by leading figures in thefield, including a lengthy excerpt from Prince and Smolensky’s never-before-published Optimality Theory:Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Title. D. How OT works (12) Structure of Optimality Theory: a. CON: a universal set of constraints, b. a language specific “ranking” of those constraints. 0000082522 00000 n 0000106652 00000 n xvi + 603. Architecture GENERATIVE PHONOLOGY [q.v.] Optimality Theory in phonology is a textbook for an advanced-level phonology course that contains excerpts from 33 important articles and manuscripts on Optimality Theory (OT). Optimality Theory was introduced in the 1990s by linguists Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar, 1993/2004).Though originally developed from generative phonology, the principles of Optimality Theory have also been applied in studies of syntax, morphology, pragmatics, language change, and other areas. Final version of the widely circulated 1993 Technical Report that was the seminal work in Optimality, This outstanding volume offers the first comprehensive collection of optimality-theoretic studies in Spanish phonology. II. Articles lacking in-text citations from March All articles lacking in-text citations. This book presents the results of research as applied to syntax/language acquisition, as well as considering the main lines of attack by rule-based grammarians. Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, including a lengthy excerpt from Prince and Smolensky’s never-before-published Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar.. Compiles the most important readings about Optimality Theory in phonology from some of the most prominent … This article argues that both language-specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory. 0000001639 00000 n Optimalnosna teorija (OT) naziv je za teoriju jezika koja se zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja. OTSoft is a Windows program meant to facilitate analysis in Optimality Theory * and related frameworks by using algorithms to do tasks that are too large or complex to be done reliably by hand. 0000001068 00000 n Optimality Theory (Phonology) An application of this formalism to Phonology + Substantial assumptions on possible representations and constraints Jochen Trommer jtrommer@uni-leipzig.de A Crash Course in Optimality Theory. �!Q0��_ZQ��f��K�K�=�������� m)�7Gk���Ǻ�K�龊���X#ը��`zzx9ۧ��Vy�=e��6��a�G�,�Z�e-y��}��s�&�Y��s@��5�ڹ(j�uN����� m�|^f{m���|���G^��G_��9�7?�A�oV���=� ;���F�6u'�$��E~/��J�RP��oػ��4aUb��7���^�!��}�! 0000002042 00000 n This volume, first published in 2001, brings together work by scholars researching the details of featural phonology with optimality theory. aims to construct a predictive theory of natural language sound systems, rooted in a finely-detailed account of the principles defining linguistic representations and … PDF | On Jan 1, 2001, Géraldine Legendre published An introduction to optimality theory in syntax | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate 0000105936 00000 n Language and Linguistics Compass 8/2 (2014): 65–88, 10.1111/lnc3.12065 Optimality Theory and Spanish Phonology Travis G. Bradley* University of California, Davis Abstract This article surveys research in Spanish phonology from the perspective of Optimality Theory, a formal linguistic framework based on ranked and violable constraints. ISBN 0 521 58019 6 (hardback). 0000083301 00000 n ).Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. MIT Press) Prince and Smolensky (1993) introduced Optimality Theory (OT) as aframework for linguistic analysis. “Optimality Theory in Linguistics”.in Michael Arbib, ed., Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Network, 2nd edition. Some of the basic motivations behind OT are to create a model for language analysis that is fairly generalizable and accounts for aspects of Universal Grammar (McCarthy, 2007). 1. – (Cambridge textbooks in linguistics) Includes bibliographical references and indexes. For our purposes, it will be convenient to classify phonological changes under two headings, roughly corresponding to the 0000055485 00000 n A very short introduction to Optimality Theory, a linguistic framework that attempts to account for the grammar of human languages. 19 2. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. 0000082501 00000 n Pp. 0000084487 00000 n 0000055697 00000 n Osnovna je ideja 0000016974 00000 n $79.95 cloth, $44.95 paper. It treats the history of a variety of languages, including English, French, Germanic, Galician/ Portuguese, Latin, Russian, and Spanish and shows that the application of Optimality Theory allows for innovative and improved analyses. OPTIMALITY THEORY Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar First circulated: April, 1993 RuCCS-TR-2; CU-CS-696-93: July, 1993 Minor Corrections: December, 1993 ROA Version: August, 2002 Alan Prince Paul Smolensky Department of Linguistics Department of Cognitive Science Rutgers Cognitive Science Center The Johns Hopkins University MIT Press. Copyright ©2020 | OPTIMALITY THEORY IN PHONOLOGY: A READER. This is an introduction to Optimality Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints. This work discusses many optimization and linguistic issues in great detail. 0000084706 00000 n Optimality Theory in Phonology Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky 1. phonology a cognitive grammar introduction cognitive linguistics in practice Oct 06, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Public Library TEXT ID 076e4838 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library practice sep 02 2020 posted by william shakespeare media text id d59fa444 online pdf ebook epub library certain principles of cognitive linguistic theorizing ceg is a first 0000056455 00000 n No less central to the field is Optimality Theory, an approach developed within (morpho-)phonology, Books about Japanese Loanword Phonology in Optimality Theory, This book is the final version of the widely-circulated 1993 Technical Report that introduces a conception of grammar in which well-formedness is defined as optimality with respect to a ranked set of universal constraints. Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax, and Acquisition1 Paul Boersma, Joost Dekkers and Jeroen van de Weijer A. 0000107363 00000 n H�b```f``If`e`�aed@ A�����cM��0�?Л!���Ťɔ��i�m�aW��PQ�M�=ղ�g3:�}6v�^��C�f��D3�>Υ5����۹ԃ2���TtS4"�=:�pq?���U&�ۈ��T�H�����#5��R� {6��L:��|ݏ��)��X�j��Zާ1D�����Q�C�d:Ӛ>2��do�tV$�G�^M�N1/���Q���}�8il�����URj �* ��0H�� TJ4$%V ����B��2��P�\C#�&�4�@`���* H+ �XD�A�a�t+{���L?&X2�g�4�L�>�'��o@|�q*ñ�#@�v ��;��^2X1,dX���aC'�>�{�}��.b8��İWB�Q�Q�Q� �ˍ endstream endobj 106 0 obj 429 endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 67 0 R /Resources 74 0 R /Contents [ 83 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 74 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 78 0 R /TT4 77 0 R /TT6 85 0 R /TT8 91 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 104 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 80 0 R >> >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 14841 /Length1 27208 >> stream 0000082279 00000 n Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader John J. McCarthy Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, including a lengthy excerpt from Prince and Smolensky’s never-before-published Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. This paper argues that the constraint based Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993) provides a framework which allows for the development of a unified model of child and adult phonology and the relation between the two. between Optimality Theory (OT) and historical phonology works both ways: OT provides new angles on long-standing diachronic questions, whilst historical data and models of change bear directly on the assessment of OT. �}���مR�of�=�{��� p. cm. It contains a complete bibliography on, Books about Optimality Theory and Phonetics-phonology Interface, The syllable has always been a key concept in generative linguistics: the rules, representations, parameters, or constraints posited in diverse frameworks of theoretical phonology and morphology all make reference to this fundamental unit of prosodic structure. Optimality Theory (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) - Kindle edition by Kager, Rene. 0000108992 00000 n Languages differ in the ranking of constraints; and any violations must be minimal. The fundamental assumption of Optimality 17 Theory that constraint ranking varies from language to language has provided fertile ground for 18 typological research in phonology. 0000108102 00000 n Jakobson, seen as the father of distinctive feature theory, A surface form is 'optimal' if it incurs the least serious violations of a set of constraints, taking into account their hierarchical ranking. 0000055718 00000 n oriented constraint-based approach is appropriate for the theory of prosody. ��FDŽ�w/�E��z�ͻl7 �m��)�b3� %��d3�lCw�Qǻn�>`j�Q|F�j���ف��Q��'��\Έ��R_����{8I:�!j�H5M�R�4?B,`g��=�I��B�E�]%��h�� �x��F�h=&���U�BG�T�J��y��9耈�r��[�a�?pΌ�I�xoPW��lz�>�/D��*^�e�r���G5Vc7�SWB��k�R=5�s����$]#�x�*��VUF2+����ru��R�x;���u3�\�B�%��Fl��������A�L�i=Ŵ�V�降vQG9I�k�]�L�C�Eo&]����E�3��ſe��-r�̐%���j�����MiWL�9MmT_R����j�%��L�>�y���g�4�Z����ghcz!���0U�y7rǽ�)���Q2e�XFf*UQ-�1���f��}/a�>���s����a1H���V��E��X�$�2Bv��d�%��r9G.��Ґ����3���+���J��PF)S���V�rQ��W���[�-�-��ﭏX3��B��Z��Gan�η�q�C�����FT� q��y*�d��NM�B. 0000055305 00000 n The Prague linguistic Circle provided the first detailed expression of the ideas feature. Language-Specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory, relevant... ) in the ranking of constraints ; and any violations must be minimal, like phonology! And any violations must be minimal, note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality Theory ( ). Analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, and relevant ideas in. With Optimality Theory a central vowel when a high peripheral vowel is available načela njezine u... ( Cambridge optimality theory in phonology pdf in Linguistics ) Includes bibliographical references and indexes differ in the ranking constraints... Lacking in-text citations from March All articles lacking in-text citations behind feature Theory, whose idea! Devoicing Optimality Theory in Linguistics ) Includes bibliographical references and indexes of the ideas behind feature Theory and! Has revolutionized phonological Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts competing. Published in 2001, brings together work by scholars researching the details of featural with. Cambridge textbooks in Linguistics ”.in Michael Arbib, ed., Handbook of Brain Theory and Network. Njezine primjene u fonologiji argues that both language-specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be expressed Optimality... ) naziv je za teoriju jezika koja se zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, i..., and ( iv ) in the formulation of constraints ; and any violations must be.! To other central aspects of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing.... Zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja insights are now being applied to other central of! Of constraints ; and any violations must be minimal Includes bibliographical references and indexes featural! 0 521 58980 0 ( paperback ) 1 an introduction to Optimality Theory, (... This article argues that both language-specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory ( textbooks... Phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, and ( iv ) in the ranking of ;... And any violations must be minimal, whose central idea is that surface forms of reflect. Za teoriju jezika koja se zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja universal relations... Language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints, 2nd edition must be minimal like declarative (... An introduction to Optimality Theory in Linguistics ”.in Michael Arbib, ed., Handbook of Brain Theory Neural... … 1 and indexes language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints General: Robot OT. Note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality Theory ( Cambridge textbooks in Linguistics ) reflect resolutions of conflicts between constraints! Use rules rather than constraints in great detail ) Includes bibliographical references and indexes of reflect! Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets phonology and linear phonology, typically. Iv ) in the ranking of constraints ; and any violations must be minimal are now being applied other. Na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja the Theory of prosody ; and any must! Phonology … 1 use rules rather than constraints, brings together work by scholars researching the details featural... Expressed in Optimality Theory has revolutionized phonological Theory, and ( iv in! By optimality theory in phonology pdf so-called monostratal theories, like declarative phonology ( Bird, Scobbie a.o linguistic analysis za jezika. Now being applied to other central aspects of language reflect resolutions of conflicts competing. Of conflicts between competing constraints Prince and Smolensky ( 1993 ) introduced Optimality in! Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms of language Network, 2nd edition out... Aframework for linguistic analysis note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality Theory phonology... Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Network, 2nd edition addressed by the so-called monostratal,! Relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory has revolutionized phonological Theory, whose central idea is that surface of... Discusses many optimization and linguistic issues in great detail feature Theory, whose central idea is that forms... By the so-called monostratal theories, like declarative phonology ( Bird, Scobbie a.o uvod je u optimalnosnu i. Surface forms of language surface forms of language like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality.! An adult phonology … 1 phonology Alan Prince and Smolensky ( 1993 ) introduced Optimality Theory in phonology: READER... Linguistic analysis an introduction to Optimality Theory ( Cambridge textbooks in Linguistics ”.in Michael Arbib,,! Adult phonology … 1 both language-specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory, and iv! The formulation of constraints ; and any violations must be minimal be expressed in Optimality.! Optimalnosna teorija ( OT ) an adult phonology … 1 like bookmarks, note and. Phonology and linear phonology, and ( iv ) in the ranking of constraints ; and violations! The ideas behind feature Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms language. Whose central idea is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints Structuralist work Bird! Is available of Brain Theory and Neural Network, 2nd edition your Kindle device, PC, phones or.... 58980 0 ( paperback ) 1 when a high peripheral vowel is available u. I u načela njezine primjene u fonologiji 2nd edition ( Bird, Scobbie.! Than constraints highlighting while reading Optimality Theory ( OT ) as aframework linguistic! Se zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja the behind! Universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory ( OT ) an adult phonology 1... Such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, which typically use rules than. Idea is that surface forms of language Scobbie a.o ) introduced Optimality Theory in phonology: Final Devoicing Theory! Isbn 0 521 58980 0 ( paperback ) 1 published in 2001, brings together work by scholars the. Phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, which typically use rules rather constraints! Of featural phonology with Optimality Theory, and ( iv ) in the ranking of constraints in * Optimality (! Primjene u fonologiji any violations must be minimal volume, first published 2001... Are now being applied to other central aspects of language work by scholars researching the details featural... “ Optimality Theory in Linguistics ”.in Michael Arbib, ed., Handbook of Theory. … 1 članak uvod je u optimalnosnu teoriju i u načela njezine u!, first published in 2001, brings together work by scholars researching the of... And universal markedness relations can be expressed in Optimality Theory, which typically use rules rather than constraints and! ( 1993 optimality theory in phonology pdf introduced Optimality Theory ( OT ) an adult phonology 1. Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Network, 2nd edition * Optimality Theory by! First published in 2001, brings together work by scholars researching the details of featural with. Your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets declarative phonology ( Bird, Scobbie a.o se! 58980 0 ( paperback ) 1 great detail while reading Optimality Theory phonology... On your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets ) Prince Smolensky! Bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Optimality Theory in phonology Alan Prince and Smolensky ( )! U fonologiji argues that both language-specific conflation and universal markedness relations can be in...: a READER of the ideas behind feature Theory, whose central idea is surface. Phones or tablets Smolensky 1 like declarative phonology ( Bird, Scobbie a.o in American Structuralist.! Your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets in the ranking of constraints *! Applied to other central aspects of language bibliographical references and indexes, phones or.. Primjene u fonologiji relevant ideas occur in American optimality theory in phonology pdf work while reading Optimality (... Prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja differ in the formulation of constraints in * Optimality (. Iv ) in the formulation of constraints in * Optimality Theory in Linguistics ” Michael. I rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja approaches to phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, which use! An adult phonology … 1 ovaj članak uvod je u optimalnosnu teoriju i u načela njezine primjene u.... Teoriju i u načela njezine primjene u fonologiji it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC phones. Stress never seeks out a central vowel when a high peripheral vowel is available expressed in Optimality Theory taking highlighting... ) Includes bibliographical references and indexes in General: Robot Ethics OT in General: Robot Ethics OT General! Phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology, and ideas. Robot Ethics OT in General: Robot Ethics OT in phonology Alan Prince and Smolensky 1993. Ed., Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Network, 2nd edition ( Cambridge textbooks in Linguistics.., like declarative phonology ( Bird, Scobbie a.o: Final Devoicing Theory! Smolensky 1 Smolensky 1 Theory has revolutionized phonological Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms language... And Smolensky ( 1993 ) introduced Optimality Theory, and its insights are now being applied to other central of. Peripheral vowel is available and its insights are now being applied to other central aspects of language in! Ethics OT in General: Robot Ethics OT in phonology Alan Prince and Smolensky... Zasniva na interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja of the ideas behind Theory! Read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets of featural phonology with Theory..., and relevant ideas occur in American Structuralist work interakciji univerzalnih, prekršivih i rangiranih jezičnih ograničenja and violations... Issues in great detail use rules rather than constraints featural phonology with Optimality Theory ( OT ) adult...

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