Cotton production is responsible for the emission of 220 million tons of CO2 annually. › Its production provides income for more than 250 million people worldwide and employs almost 7% … During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. The cotton bale is opened, and its fibres are raked mechanically to remove foreign matter (e.g., soil and seeds). China alone produces around 4.3 million tonnes of cotton each year, and has the highest number of cotton growers in the world. Seminar, conference and workshop presentations and future events. When warmth is desired, it can be napped, a process giving the fabric a downy surface. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to... Close-up of a carding machine at a textile mill. A tour around a factory to find out about the manufacture of cotton fabric and the various tests it must pass before leaving the factory. Worldwide cotton production has not declined this much since 2008. Faster production methods include rotor spinning (a type of open-end spinning), in which fibres are detached from the card sliver and twisted, within a rotor, as they are joined to the end of the yarn. Plant-parasitic nematodes cost cotton growers more in chemical control expenses and plant losses than any other plant disease. COTTON Market situation The world cotton market experienced dramatic developments in the first half of the 2015 marketing year (see glossary for a definition of marketing year) caused by an acute drop in production – about 9% – in major producing countries. Long staple cotton originates usually from the USA, whereas the shorter come from Asian regions. Cutting edge research from several disciplines provides a solid foundation for the continued genetic improvement of cotton. Table 24.14 shows the trends in the production of cotton in India. A chemical defoliant is usually applied before mechanical picking to cause the plants to shed their leaves, thus encouraging more uniform ripening of the bolls. Organic cotton promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles and so is beneficial to human health and the environment. A species of boll weevil resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons was recorded in the late 1950s; this species is combatted effectively with a mixture of toxaphene and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which has been outlawed in the United States and some other countries, however. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. World cotton production is projected to increase by 1.5 percent annually in the current decade to reach 23.1 million tonnes by 2010. Some module feeders have giant conveyors moving the modules into stationary heads. Combine harvesting ripe cotton in Alabama. Blends (composites) are made during yarn processing by joining drawn cotton with other staple fibres, such as polyester or casein . This statistic shows the total amount of cotton produced worldwide from 1990 to 2020. Scientists believe that cotton was first cultivated in the Indus delta. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to shred the stalks), bedder (to shape the soil into ridges or seedbeds), planter, cultivator, sprayer, and harvester. Finally, the roving is transferred to a spinning frame, where it is drawn further, twisted on a ring spinner, and wound on a bobbin as yarn. In 1793, Eli Whitney revolutionized the production of cotton when he invented the cotton gin, a Production: India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world though she is the world’s third largest producer of cotton after China and the USA. Glyphosate-resistant cotton, which can tolerate the herbicide glyphosate, was also developed through genetic engineering. Chemical insecticides, which were first introduced in the early 1900s, require careful and selective use because of ecological considerations but appear to be the most effective and efficient means of control. Cotton is the most widespread profitable non-food crop in the world. A National Cotton Council analysis affirms that today’s modern cotton production system provides significant benefits to rural America’s economy and environment. Cotton plants are subject to diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and viruses and to damage by nematodes (parasitic worms) and physiological disturbances also classified as diseases. Updates? Each cottonseed may produce as many as 20,000 fibres. Omissions? Therefore, even though the properties of organic cotton fibre are not as good as regular cotton fibre worldwide production of organic cotton is growing rapidly. The intermediary categroy, cotton fibers between 18mm-28mm, constitute the grand mass of the world production of around 60%. Cotton production is a very involved process, from planting cotton seeds to picking the cotton crop to the processing it in a cotton gin. The United States is a key producer and exporter of cotton. American Upland cotton crop data for the Far West, Southwest, Midsouth and Southeast cotton growing areas. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. Almost all of the cotton fiber growth and production occurs in southern and western states, dominated by Texas, California, Arizona, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Cotton production is an important economic factor in the United States as the country leads, worldwide, in cotton exportation. Organizations in which Cotton Incorporated participates to enforce the standardization of cotton as a natural resource. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The Six Stages of Organic Cotton Production. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens, suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. The procedure for weaving cotton yarn into fabric is similar to that for other fibres. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. The fibres are composed of about 87 to 90 percent cellulose (a carbohydrate plant substance), 5 to 8 percent water, and 4 to 6 percent natural impurities. Linters, fibres considerably shorter than the seed hair and more closely connected to the seed, come from a second growth beginning about 10 days after the first seed hairs begin to develop. To avoid damage to the cotton by wind or rain, it is picked as soon as the bolls open, but since the bolls do not all reach maturity simultaneously, an optimum time is chosen for harvesting by mechanical means. Cotton Production Adopting more efficient cotton production practices is now a requirement instead of an advantage for all segments of the cotton industry. In 2018/19, cotton production worldwide amounted to some 118.65 million 480-pound bales. The textile industry used to be the country’s largest consumer of cotton … There are three groups of commercial cotton; American Upland cotton, American Pima or Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton, and shorter length cottons. Jute, mainly from West Bengal, Assam, and Bihar, is the second leading natural fibre. 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Cotton Incorporated is committed to providing cotton production information and cotton production resources to help the cotton industry meet and exceed these challenges. Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Punjab are the principal cotton-growing states. A traditional and still common processing method is ring spinning, by which the mass of cotton may be subjected to opening and cleaning, picking, carding, combing, drawing, roving, and spinning. Insecticides are sprayed to protect the plants at this stage. Production, particularly in the tropical regions of the world, looks set to suffer under predicted rising temperatures, decreased soil moisture and more extreme weather events and flooding. The alternative: Organic cotton. The United States is ranked third in production, behind China and India. The breeding of resistant varieties, however, has been more effective. Currently it is grown over 6 per cent of the net sown area. The fertilized blossoms fall off after a few days and are replaced by small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. Production of cotton is limited to a few big producers, with China, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and the USA accounting for over 80% of the total production. Bulgaria produces cotton on less than 1,000 ha. In that year, cotton production in India amounted to around 6.42 million metric tons. The amount of water needed to produce one kilogram of cotton; equivalent to a single t-shirt and pair of jeans. Two-thirds of the weight of the seed cotton (i.e., the seed with the adhering seed hair) consists of the seeds. Then the gin's saws and teeth separate the cotton fiber from the seeds, sending them in different directions. According to the US Department of Labour, cotton is one of the goods most commonly produced using forced labour. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. Table 24.14 Production, Area and Yield of Cotton in India: Controls and quarantines of affected areas have helped limit the spread of the insect, and eradication has been possible in a few relatively small areas with sufficiently strict controls. History Cotton is being employed by mankind for over 7000 years. Developing countries would continue to account for the largest share of world cotton production. Herbicide resistance education and training are critical for advancing the adoption of diverse weed management programs to delay and mitigate the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), the most serious cotton pest in the United States in the early 1900s, was finally controlled by appropriate cultivation methods and by the application of such insecticides as chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. The various species of cotton grown as agricultural crops are native to most subtropical parts of the world and were domesticated independently multiple times. The cottonseed research and marketing program strives to maximize cotton-grower profit from the cottonseed byproduct. New varieties, crop nutrition, soil fertility, tillage, planting, seedling development and in-season management in cotton agronomy. During this period, the plant is subject to attack by many insects (e.g. A card (carding) machine brushes the loose fibres into rows that are joined as a soft sheet, or web, and forms them into loose untwisted rope known as card sliver. origins of agriculture: Mechanized equipment for cotton. Traduzioni in contesto per "production of cotton" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: We believe your proposal will result in the production of cotton being discontinued. Within 80–100 days after planting, the plant develops white blossoms, which change to a reddish colour. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. Precision crop management, conservation tillage systems, irrigation management, harvest equipment, and ginning. The character is the attribute determined with more difficulty. Cotton is susceptible to a wide range of insect pests such as bollworms, plant bugs, stink bugs, aphids, thrips and spider mites. The bollworm (Heliothis zea, also known as the corn earworm) feeds on cotton and many other wild and cultivated plants. 27 million tons of cotton is produced globally in a year By 2028, cotton production is projected to reach 29 million tons. Each year, India produces an average of 5,770 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making it the world’s highest producer. Cotton is attacked by several hundred species of insects, including such harmful species as the boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafworm, cotton fleahopper, cotton aphid, rapid plant bug, conchuela, southern green stinkbug, spider mites (red spiders), grasshoppers, thrips, and tarnished plant bugs. Traduzioni in contesto per "of cotton production" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: Commissioner, the current reform of cotton production began in 2001. Thinner strands are produced by the roving (slubbing) process, in which the sliver is converted to roving by being pulled and slightly twisted. https://www.britannica.com/topic/cotton-fibre-and-plant, Jewish Women's Archive - Biography of Anne Frank, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Antonio Canova, The New Georgia Encyclopedia - Business and Economy - Cotton, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Georg Brandes, cotton - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cotton - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The water footprint is only 10% the footprint of “conventionally” grown cotton and no pesticides or other synthetic chemicals are used in the production. The Cotton Incorporated Fellowship (CIF) program provides excellent doctoral and post-doctoral training opportunities for qualified applicants. The seed hair, or cotton fibre, reaching a maximum length of about 6 cm (2.5 inches) in long-fibre varieties, is known as lint. A variety of cotton production, crop management, yield variety, and fiber quality data resources. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Other module feeders are self-propelled, moving down a track alongside the modules. Cotton is an arable crop used mainly for fibre. Greece is the main cotton grower, with 80% of European cotton area, followed by Spain (mainly the region of Andalucía) with a share of 20%. The cotton fibers will be used to … The first evidence of cotton use was found in India and Pakistan, and dates from about 6,000 B.C. Use Cotton Incorporated's Engineered Fiber Selection® (EFS®) Cotton Management System™ Software to consistently create the best quality yarn. Service Marks / Trademarks of Cotton Incorporated. Forced labour exists in nine countries producing 65% of the world’s cotton – Benin, Burkina Faso, China, India, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. The first group includes the fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from about 2.5 to 6.5 cm (about 1 to 2.5 inches) and includes types of the highest quality—such as Sea Island, Egyptian, and pima cottons. This mechanised production was concentrated in new cotton mills, which slowly expanded till by the beginning of the 1770s seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import. …the commercial industrial crops is cotton. Agricultural and Environmental Research staff directory. Good yields require over 95% weed control. Cotton accepts many dyes, is usually washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures. When the seeds are nearly ripe the pod burst open and the cotton hairs project, forming a white fluffy mass called a boll. Properly timed insecticide application provides fairly effective control. Conventional cotton production requires more insecticides than any other major crop, and the production of organic cotton, which relies on nonsynthetic insecticides, has been increasing in many places worldwide. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Cotton Incorporated has a variety of tools available for cotton producers to gain information for their specific marketing plan. Once in the cotton gin, t… The origins of cotton production and use go back to ancient times. Detailed information on proper irrigation management for the cultivation of cotton in humid regions and other areas. Module feeders break the modules apart and feedthe cotton into the gin. Least plentiful and most difficult to grow, long-staple cottons are costly and are used mainly for fine fabrics, yarns, and hosiery. It produces 3,999 thousand metric tonnes a year. Losses have been estimated as high as 50 percent in some African countries and in Brazil. View and listen to current cotton market information, world events, and analysis from expert sources. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Handpicking, carried out over a period of several days, allows selection of the mature and opened bolls, so that a higher yield is possible. The cottonseed, which remains after cotton is ginned, is used to produce oil for human consumption and oilseed cake for animal feed. The third group includes the short-staple, coarse cottons, ranging from about 1 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 inch) in length, used to make carpets and blankets, coarse and inexpensive fabrics, and blends with other fibres. Ginned cotton is shipped in bales to a textile mill for yarn manufacturing. Cotton can be found as perennial treelike plants in tropical climates but is normally cultivated as a shrubby annual in temperate climates. There are six stages in the process of organic cotton garment manufacture. Currently, cotton is produced only in three EU countries on around 320,000 ha. Warp yarns often are treated chemically to prevent breaking during weaving. Cotton, seed-hair fibre of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). The demand for the commodity is usually driven by the demand for cotton lint by textile producers. Following planting, cotton requires 8 weeks of weed-free growth for maximum yields. Boll weevil, Boll worm, Caterpillar). By 1860, the region was producing two-thirds of the world’s cotton. Cotton, however, emerged as the antebellum South’s major commercial crop, eclipsing tobacco, rice, and sugar in economic importance. In addition to parasitic nematodes, cotton is subject to endemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and at least two recently introduced fungal diseases. For higher-quality yarn, card sliver is put through a combing machine, which straightens the staple further and removes unwanted short lengths, or noils. 08-05-2017. Cotton fibres may be classified roughly into three large groups, based on staple length (average length of the fibres making up a sample or bale of cotton) and appearance. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The majority of the cotton comes from India, the United States and China – the world’s top three cotton producers. Although cotton can be grown between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, yield and fibre quality are considerably influenced by climatic conditions, and best qualities are obtained with high moisture levels resulting from rainfall or irrigation during the growing season and a dry, warm season during the picking period. Soil fumigation moderately succeeded in combatting such fungus diseases as fusarium wilt, verticillium wilt, and Texas root rot, which are restricted to certain conditions of soil, rainfall, and general climate. A picker (picking machine) then wraps the fibres into a lap. Organic, responsibly grown cotton is better for the planet in many ways. Various finishing processes have been developed to make cotton resistant to stains, water, and mildew; to increase resistance to wrinkling, thus reducing or eliminating the need for ironing; and to reduce shrinkage in laundering to not more than 1 percent. Although cotton represents less than 0.2% of the value of Europ… Limited control of damage by insect pests can be achieved by proper timing of planting and other cultural practices or by selective breeding of varieties having some resistance to insect damage. African countries and in Brazil has not declined this much since 2008 a white fluffy mass called a boll worldwide. 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