The decision was ultimately made to finish her as a battleship, a process that took several years. Initial testing of her propulsion machinery began on 4 December, followed by full tests that began in January 1949. As tensions with Egypt over the control of the Suez Canal flared in 1956, the decision was made on 8 July to deploy the ship to Egypt. This will come to a few factors… Design and Development: Jean Bart: The Jean Bart was the last of France’s battleships built and was a part of the Richelieu Class, with much of its design history going back to 1936. Jean Bart entered the action at 0708, firing a two-gun salvo from her 380mm turret at the battleship USS Massachusetts at a range of 22,000 meters, her shells falling 600 yards of the starboard bow of the American ship. He moved the ship to shallow water on 11 August. Then shells strike her upper (330mm) or lower (250mm) belt, though the latter will usually necessitate plunging through water first, further reducing penetration. Do they describe how the sections of Jean Bart's main deck were fixed together? During the operations off the canal zone, she carried a complement of 1,280 officers and men, despite the fact that her projected wartime crew amounted to 2,220. In 1945, discussions as to the fate of the ship considered converting her into an aircraft carrier, finishing her as a battleship, or discarding her altogether. The Dunkerques carried their armament in two quadruple gun turrets arrayed in a superfiring pair forward of the superstructure, and the designers experimented with other arrangements, including combinations of triple and twin turrets, but the need to minimize the length of the armor belt (and thus its weight) necessitated a repetition of the Dunkerque layout.  She thereafter conducted a series of training cruises off the coast of Brittany in August and September before transferring to the Mediterranean in October. Post The ships left on 1 November and reached Limassol, Cyprus on the 4th, where the paratroopers and frogmen transferred to amphibious assault ships. In November, American and British forces invaded French North Africa in Operation Torch; Jean Bart initially helped to resist the attack, engaging in a gunnery duel with the battleship USS Massachusetts before being badly damaged by American dive bombers. For navigational purposes, a 3 m (9.8 ft) rangefinder was installed on the conning tower and two more were added to the bridge wings in October. He estimated that 19 June would be the best opportunity based on the tides, and early that morning Jean Bart was towed out of the fitting-out dock by three tugboats at 03:30 and into a channel that had been quickly but not sufficiently dredged to allow her escape. 89. Shortly thereafter, three German Heinkel 111 bombers arrived at a height of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) to attack the ship. , In return, Jean Bart fired four two-gun salvos between 07:08 and 07:19, but when the French cruiser and destroyers attempted to sortie, they laid a smoke screen that drifted and blocked observation of the American cruisers. On 22 February, they decided that Jean Bart would be completed, but there was no consensus as to how the ship was to be finished. Three of her nine two-gun salvos straddled Augusta, forcing the cruiser to withdraw at high speed and prompting Ranger to launch a second air strike on the ship. Post Sep 28, 2014 #1 2014-09-28T21:04. She spent the next several months in Brest, and in early 1951 resumed initial training. Her secondary armament consisted of nine 152 mm (6 in) /55 Mle 1930 guns mounted in three triple turrets, arranged on the rear superstructure. by Steve Crandell » Fri Oct 31, 2014 6:18 pm, Post Massachusetts participated in one of the few battleship vs. battleship actions in WWII, when she fired upon the Vichy battleship Jean Bart at Casablanca. Three more salvos followed until 0719, as the makeshift rangefinders could no longer target the American ships. She then conducted gunnery tests, and in May, she was assigned to the Groupe des bâtiments de ligne (Battleship Group) with Richelieu, though the unit was disbanded in 1950. Forum rules. She took part in the French intervention in the Suez Crisis in November 1956, including a brief four-shot bombardment of Port Said. She sailed for Casablanca just before the armistice, and there she remained. , Nine Dauntlesses, this time armed with 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs, and eight F4F Wildcat fighters attacked the ship at 15:00. The navy considered a number of modernization proposals to improve the ship's anti-aircraft battery or add guided missiles. The second struck the quay and exploded, the blast causing significant deformation to the hull plating on the starboard side. Battleship Massachusetts, known by her crew as "Big Mamie," was assigned as flagship for a covering force of warships supporting the invasion of North Africa, "Operation Torch." 8,304 144. Built as a response to the Italian Littorio class, the Richelieus were based on their immediate predecessors of the Dunkerque class with the same unconventional arrangement that grouped their main battery forward in two quadruple gun turrets. French shore batteries inflicted superficial damage on Massachusetts, the scars of which are still evident on its decks today. L'USS Louisiana devait être le cinquième et dernier navire de la classe Montana. Beginning in November the shipyard embarked on the next phase modernization program, which included the installation of the anti-aircraft guns, modifying the 152 mm turrets to convert them to dual-purpose guns, and the fitting of fire control equipment. The first is her 32mm anti-torpedo bulge (not shown). Her crew numbered 1,569 officers and men. Fenard issued a report to the US Vice Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Frederick J. Horne, on 15 April detailing the status of Jean Bart, but Horne replied on 1 May that the ship could not be completed to her original specifications. , /45 refers to the length of the gun in terms of. It was a very lopsided engagement, given Jean Bart didn’t have half of her main battery of 8 15″ guns active, and was moored in port. Alternatively, an air-defense missile armament for testing purposes was considered; this would have involved removing the centerline 152 mm turret and replacing it with a launcher for the American RIM-2 Terrier missile. At the same time, her main battery turrets were deactivated for preservation while work continued on the ship. Like in OTL, the Jean … Fire control radars included a DRBC 10A set for the main battery, six ACAE sets for the heavy anti-aircraft battery and five DRBC 30B sets for the light anti-aircraft guns. Milalex. Her anti-aircraft armament was slowly strengthened as guns became available and a search radar was fitted in 1942. The vessel was sold to ship breakers on 21 May, towed to Brégaillon, and dismantled for scrap. Nevertheless, the shipyard workers in Casablanca had readied the ship for sea trials by September 1943. This led to Operation Catapult, a series of attacks on French warships to neutralize vessels that would not defect to the Free French. The covering force then targeted El Hank Battery from 08:40 to 09:25. This hit scored in Massachusetts' citadel section. These would be supplemented by sixty-four Bofors 40 mm (1.6 in) guns in quadruple mounts and fifty 20 mm (0.79 in) Oerlikon cannon in single mounts. They were scaled up to accommodate a much more powerful main battery of eight 380 mm (15 in) guns(compared to the 330 mm (13 in) guns of the Dunkerques), with increased ar… In 1941, an improvised director was fabricated using a torpedo tube platform removed from the old destroyer Enseigne Gabolde as a base for a 14 m (46 ft) rangefinder. The radar was pronounced ready for service on 6 October. On 8 December, Fenard appealed directly to Horne's superior, Admiral Ernest King, the Commander-in-Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations, but King informed Fenard in March 1944 that the US Navy had no interest in diverting critical wartime resources to complete the ship. In place of the superfiring main turret, three secondary turrets, and the 90 mm mounts, she would receive thirty 5 in (130 mm) /38 caliber dual-purpose guns in fifteen twin turrets. C'était le septième Jean Bart de la Marine française, son prédécesseur était un cuirassé dreadnought lancé en 19111,2. Milalex. Massachusetts replied, silencing Jean Bart with five hits. The ship remained laid up until 10 February 1970 when she was struck from the naval register, renamed Q466, and placed for sale. Built as a response to the Italian Littorio class, the Richelieus were based on their immediate predecessors of the Dunkerque class with the same unconventional arrangement that grouped their main battery forward in two quadruple gun turrets. Her normal displacement had risen to 43,052 t (42,372 long tons), with full-load displacement at 49,196 t (48,419 long tons). , Jean Bart participated in training exercises with the fleet off the coast of North Africa in May and June 1950. Les années 1920, en matière d'armements navals, ont été marquées par le traité de Washington, qui a limité la construction des cuirassés à des navires de moins de 35 000 tonnes, armés de canons de 406 mm au plu… Her rudder and anchor chains were installed, and her double bottom was sealed. Jean Bart's superfiring turret was reactivated in August and on 7 September, she conducted shooting practice with the turret in company with the cruiser Georges Leygues off the coast of North Africa. Massachusetts replied, silencing Jean Bart with five hits. , The attacks prompted Ronarc'h to take precautions to protect his ship. Both bombs caused serious fires that were suppressed by 20:00. A third group suggested scrapping the ship and focusing on other projects. New fire control equipment was to be installed, including US-built directors and a Mk 4 fire control radar. Le Jean Bart était un cuirassé de la Marine nationale française, le second de la classe Richelieu. Though her hull was still badly deformed from the damage incurred during Operation Torch and had not been cleaned of biofouling, she reached a speed of 22.5 knots (41.7 km/h; 25.9 mph). In early November, the ship received a fifth 90 mm twin mount, with a sixth planned; at that time, the anti-aircraft battery consisted of five 90 mm twin mounts, five 37 mm guns (two in twins and one in a single mount), eighteen 13.2 mm guns (two twin and fourteen individual mounts) and one 8 mm machine gun.  The Germans later decided against permitting the move, as they feared the British would try to seize the ship during the passage through the Strait of Gibraltar; the British, meanwhile, were under the mistaken impression that the Germans sought to seize the French fleet for their own use. In this battle, Massachusetts fired the first American 16" projectile in anger of World War II. Most work on the ship was completed by 1955, when she formally entered active service, and she conducted two overseas cruises to visit Denmark and the United States shortly thereafter. At this time, the ship's armament was mostly incomplete; the forward main battery turret had its guns and armor plate installed, but it lacked necessary shell handling equipment and fire control systems. In June 1956, Jean Bart went on a tour of French North Africa. They were scaled up to accommodate a much more powerful main battery of eight 380 mm (15 in) guns (compared to the 330 mm (13 in) guns of the Dunkerques), with increased armor to protect them from guns of the same caliber. USS West Point AP23 War Cruise-part 1; USS West Point AP23 War Cruise-part 2; Singapore, Fateful Stop on "Joan's Journey" Update West Point; Part I, Briggs on Casablanca, Sicily; Part II, Briggs on Anzio. And for me T8 is better cause competitive tier and T7 is unbalanced and enought full of OP preniums #Belfast and Scharnhorst Thereafter followed another stint in the dry dock from 20 March to 9 October 1948, which involved the installation of bulges to the lower hull and her propeller shafts were repaired. The main armored deck was 170 mm (6.7 in) thick, and the conning tower had 340 mm (13 in) thick sides. ", Jean Bart was then moved to Brest, where she was dry-docked for repairs to her hull that began on 11 March 1946. Massachusetts silenced the French warship with seven 16-inch hits. USS Massachusetts (BB-59): Historical Overview: ... Morocco, the Battleship engaged in a gun duel with the unfinished French battleship Jean Bart, moored at a Casablanca pier. After decommissioning on March 2, 1947, the MASSACHUSETTS was saved from the scrap pile when she … One more shell from Massachusetts struck the ship at 08:10 on the quarterdeck, where it penetrated the sloped armor deck and exploded in the ballast compartment, causing additional flooding in the steering compartment. One faction, including Fenard as well as Admirals Pierre Barjot and Louis Kahn (the latter being the Chief of Naval Construction), advocated converting the ship into an aircraft carrier, while others argued that the ship should be completed as a battleship. This is what French Battleship Jean Bart looked like after taking numerous 16" shells from USS Massachusetts BB59 and two direct bomb hits from USS Ranger … The 152 mm turret would be retained for re-installation once the evaluation period was over. , The ship's anti-aircraft battery was strengthened in April 1942 with the addition of four 37 mm guns in single mounts and a pair of new twin 90 mm guns. French Navy Resists as Jean Bart Duels U.S. Battleship and Cruisers ... Battleships Massachusetts, New York and Texas, fleet carrier USS Ranger and four carriers converted from tanker hulls, and seven cruisers played important roles in the all-US Western Task Force. Massachusetts and its escorts then opened fire on and sank a pair of destroyers. By the time work on the ship was completed, she had been fitted with a variety of radar sets, including a DRBV 11 air/surface search radar, a DRBV 20 air search radar, and a DRBV 30 navigational radar. The tests revealed the need for extensive modifications to the systems that were finally complete in October 1954. Workers quickly cut away the deformed steel that jammed the main battery turret and it was back in operation at 17:24. 89. Another shell struck the edge of the quay, punched the outer plating, and was deflected down by the armor belt. Jean Bart fired back. The dry dock used to build the ship was the newly completed Caquot dock, named for its designer, Albert Caquot, though it was commonly referred to as the "Jean Bart dock". Jean Bart was laid down in 1936 and was launched in 1940, following the outbreak of World War II in Europe. During these operations, she was accompanied by the destroyers Basque and Le Fortuné and three US destroyers. I was recently reading some history of "Operation Torch" in which the "Jean Bart" was put out of action by 16 inch gun fire from the USS Massachusetts. Work on the hull was completed on 26 November 1947, which allowed her to be moved from the dry dock to the fitting-out quay. Coupled with the cost of maintaining Jean Bart in service, the need to release the manpower tied up in the ship for more useful vessels led to her withdrawal from active service after just two years. Some consideration was given in 1964 to reactivate the vessel for use as a command ship during a series of nuclear experiments in the Pacific Ocean, but it was determined that the cost would have been too high, thus the cruiser De Grasse was used instead. The small Dunkerque-class battleships that had been ordered provided the template for the next French battleship design, but it needed to be scaled up to match the new Italian vessels, both in terms of offensive and defensive characteristics. After shakedown, Massachusetts departed Casco Bay, Maine, 24 October 1942 and 4 days later made rendezvous with the Western Naval Task Force for the invasion of north Africa, serving as flagship for Adm. H. Kent Hewitt. Two of the bombers scored hits; the first caused extensive damage to the forecastle and the second destroyed a substantial part of the hull toward the stern. 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